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Electric Luxury SUV Comparison: Cadillac Lyriq vs BMW iX

1. Introduction

Ten different safety features will be standard on the Lyriq including automatic park assist, rear pedestrian alert, and automatic emergency braking. The Lyriq aims to please its passengers by providing a minimalist, clean interior and enhanced technology. A 33-inch LED screen will serve as the instrument panel and infotainment display. Static facial recognition and an in-car video-chat system will remember driver preferences and keep riders connected on the go. The newest version of Cadillac's Super Cruise hands-free driver assistance will also be available. A more immersive augmented reality head-up display and surround sound system are in the cards as well. Step in the right direction with an authentic wood instrument panel and ambient lighting, the Lyriq's interior will have modern design and a heightened level of sophistication. Pricing is expected to commence at around $59,990. With federal tax incentives for electric vehicles still available this could provide a good value for the content. Overall, the Lyriq is expected to become a groundbreaking vehicle for Cadillac and should offer a different experience than the typical luxury SUV. (Kim, 2020)

First, the Cadillac Lyriq. It is luxurious, efficient, and a breath of fresh air for the Cadillac brand. The rear-wheel-drive-based 340 horsepower SUV is motivated by a single electric motor that is good enough acceleration for any heavy vehicle. An all-wheel-drive performance mode will also be available, which will likely make the Lyriq the fastest and most engaging to drive Cadillac vehicle.

Today, many luxury car manufacturers are leaning towards electric-powered vehicles. BMW and Cadillac are two major brands who have recently introduced new electric luxury SUVs. In Cadillac's corner, there is the 2022 Lyriq. On BMW's side, there is the 2022 BMW iX. Both cars possess worthy specifications and features, but let's take a closer look and find out which one would win the fight of electric SUV luxury.

1.1. Overview of the Cadillac Lyriq

The Cadillac Lyriq is Cadillac's first all-electric vehicle, and it was first introduced in August of 2020. It's currently set to go into production in the first quarter of 2022, and it will be produced as a 2023 model. The Lyriq could be an important vehicle for Cadillac as it transitions to an all-electric brand, and it's got a lot of things going for it. For starters, the Lyriq is a sleek and stylish crossover that takes advantage of an all-new platform and battery system. It's also projected to have fairly formidable range, with 300 miles on a single charge. Throw in a level 2 or level 3 autonomous driving system and an 'ultra-cruise' highway mode and the Lyriq is positioned to be a pretty high tech vehicle. The Lyriq will be based on GM's new modular electric vehicle platform and will be powered by GM's proprietary Ultium battery system. This system will allow for 300 miles of range, have 150 kW DC fast charging and is designed to be safe, drive down cost and reduce charging times. The Lyriq is currently only available in a rear-wheel drive configuration. Cadillac claims the vehicle will have 340 horsepower, and it will accelerate from 0-60 in 6.5 seconds. These numbers are likely to be conservative, so we expect the Lyriq to be decently quick. The Lyriq will also have adjustable air ride adaptive suspension standard, and have an industry first double wishbone front and 5-link independent rear suspension system. This should allow for a smooth and controlled ride, and give the Lyriq balanced and surefooted handling. The suspension system combined with the sound deadening materials and other NVH countermeasures will make the Lyriq a quiet vehicle. The only real downside in terms of performance and ride quality is the RWD only configuration. An all-wheel drive model is possible in the future, but we think that would have been a better option from a consumer choice and a performance standpoint.

1.2. Overview of the BMW iX

BMW has implemented several safety features on the iX 5.0, such as Dynamic Stability Control, 4-wheel ABS disc brakes, Advanced Head Protection System in case of front or side impact, 2-stage airbags for driver and front passenger, side impact airbags, and a battery safety terminal which automatically unlocks doors, turns on hazard lights, and disconnects the alternator, fuel pump, and starter from the battery. This feature is important because it will prevent potential fires after an accident has occurred. The iX 5.0 also has an integrated Active Liquid-Cooled Battery Thermal Management System, which maintains the battery at an optimum operating temperature for maximum battery performance, efficiency, and life, as compared to other electric vehicles that use air cooling.

The BMW iX 5.0 model is a fully electric vehicle with advanced electric vehicle propulsion. Unlike most conventional gasoline-powered vehicles, the iX 5.0 has no motor or engine. Its power is supplied only through electricity supplied through the built-in charger. With a hatch-mounted charger port with LED indicator, the iX 5.0 was built for modern creative individuals who want to make a change toward a less dependent future on fossil fuels. Rated as an Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV), the iX 5.0 is a clean-running vehicle that produces zero emissions. With its 300 horsepower rating, the iX 5.0 can travel from 0 to 60 mph in 6.3 seconds. Ideal for smooth gradual acceleration, and zero emissions actually increase the life of internal vehicle components, in turn reducing maintenance costs.

2. Exterior Design

When it comes to aerodynamics and efficiencies, these are two of the high points for both of these upcoming luxury offerings. Cadillac says it has gone to great lengths to maximize the range potential of the Lyriq and believes it hits a sweet spot in aerodynamics, and the published specs of both vehicles would back up that Cadillac target here. Without getting into the complex, too long-winded detail, it looks as if both companies have done a lot right without going to excess in this aspect. There are also no roof rails available on the Lyriq, which could reduce wind noise and efficiency at higher speeds or in windy weather. - Step up your lighting game BMW. The standard Lyriq will have a 2-light setup that Cadillac calls a "black crystal grill," giving way to a vertically higher light setup à la the Escalade. The company says it intends to keep this a unique styling feature for Cadillac EVs. But more intriguingly, it intends to be the first GM vehicle to feature autonomous vehicle-integrated lighting technology, which at a glance seems to imply headlights meant to communicate vehicle operation or intent to pedestrians or other vehicles. This is a feature we haven't seen detailed out yet but is definitely intriguing in principle and something to keep an eye on as the Lyriq gets closer to the production phase going into next year.

The exterior styles of the Lyriq and iX are night and day. The former is modern and sleek yet also elegant, while the latter is rather ungainly, looking bigger than it is and rather slab-sided, with numerous awkward details and strange proportions. The Lyriq has a more traditional SUV-like stance and looks, although with a floor that's lower to the ground than a traditional SUV thanks to the lack of a heavy and space-consuming ICE powertrain. Cadillac says it wanted the Lyriq to reflect its California setting and the wider range and better mood of an electric era, and we'd say it turned out something quite becoming of that stated aim. It seems targeted at a young, affluent, and progressive sort of buyer. The BMW looks like no other BMW, EV, or SUV. Say what we will about its looks, the company is nothing if not consistent in taking big risks in this arena, the iX will get attention. On the availability of 20-22 inch diameter wheels on the Lyriq, there's evidence that Cadillac is at a minimum allowing for more customization in the looks of its vehicles, which is probably a good thing to have in its pocket as it aims more and more towards a younger demographic.

2.1. Styling and Presence

As indicated by the name of this classification, what a SUV resembles and the way it presents itself is of utmost significance. The idea of luxury SUVs goes hand in hand with an intense and powerful design, and both of these vehicles exhibit just that. Starting with the iX, this is a vehicle that definitely has a "wow" effect. One glances at it first with confusion, perhaps starts to feel as though there is something not quite right about this vehicle plan, before ultimately reaching a state of affection and comfort. This "wow" effect isn't perfect by the BMW designers, but continues to be a significant theme in many of their recent releases, with the vehicle being the clearest example. The Lyriq on the other hand, is emotionally powerful. A net positive reaction is felt after seeing the vehicle, but the force used in achieving such a result leaves the viewer feeling revered. It might sound somewhat subjective, but that is exactly the impression which this vehicle gives. Despite this, and BMW's best efforts, it's hard to deny that the Lyriq just looks more luxurious. This partly can be attributed to the iX's unconventional design and the possibility that when it becomes common; it could be mistaken for one of BMW's more standard offerings. The front and Cullinan-esque back are quite aggressive and although this design borrowed from larger Rolls may have been an accident, it marks a reversal for the Lyriq, into a Cadillac SUV design which is much more refreshing than the design language used recently. Additional weight is added to the understanding the iX is essentially an odd looking vehicle when considering the size and presence of its kidney grille. This has been a central feature of many a BMW in the past, but here it just serves to come off putting. Finally, it all comes down to the hits. The look and feel of touching a vehicle. It's a very Cadillac focused with expressions of high fashion. A "more" which could easily be read as excess, but it can't be denied that on a SUV and in this particular market, such a flashy approach is bound to resonate. All that said, the Lyriq indeed is a beautiful vehicle to see. For the first time in a while an American vehicle which isn't a pickup truck or full-sized SUV, offers presence, but also a particularly modern, elegant and global design. Both of these vehicles aim to leave a lasting impact; however, BMW must be hoping that this is something which doesn't equate to a loss. (Thomas, 2020)

2.2. Aerodynamics and Efficiency

Cadillac brags about the fact that the Lyriq has a "near 50/50 weight distribution, wide track, and long wheelbase." This is something that has been a staple in BMW's design and performance success. It was very surprising for me to see the Lyriq front and center on the Cadillac website drifting through snow and boasting vehicle dynamics and performance. While there have been typical Cadillac sedans in the past, the market trend has shown a significant decrease in sedan demand and an increase in the desire for SUVs. Since Cadillac is now venturing into their first generation of electric vehicles, we're willing to say that the massive investment towards a first electric vehicle is a risk. General Motors has pinned their entire 2025 lineup of EVs to already reaching the around $100/kWh threshold. The more complex and performant the vehicle, the more energy it will consume, leading to less efficiency. With rising fuel costs and the recent economic instability, market trends may bypass EVs towards more efficient ICE vehicles. This is essentially what led to the disappearance of large body-on-frame SUVs to unibody sport crossovers. This is a completely different topic, but the Lyriq will have to provide more efficiency per dollar than the market has already achieved with Tesla Model Y and Model X SUVs.

We touched briefly on the fact that Cadillac compromised back seat headroom and cargo room in the pursuit of better design. BMW was able to pull off a very roomy interior while maintaining a very sophisticated exterior. This is in big part due to the fact that the iX has a smaller frontal area than the Lyriq. It's very hard to imagine being able to make a vehicle with a larger exterior and be more efficient; this does not seem to be the case with the Lyriq.

2.3. Lighting and Signature Features

LEDs are taking over the game of providing bright efficient light. The power usage to light output ratio of this product is far beyond that of traditional lighting. The Lyriq is offered with a full exterior and interior LED lighting system. The headlights are of a three-element design, similar to the Escalade, but with the whales and dolphins in mind. The eyebrows are the low beams, and outlined by an LED strip on the housing. The actual high beams are the lower set of lights and rest below the brows. Cadillac lighting engineers claim this is a new and distinctive look. The Lyriq is said to also have the largest OLED display in the industry. This is available through rear tail lights. This ultra-thin lighting will be programmable and give engineers more design freedom with little restriction. Although an interesting feature, its long-term reliability and cost efficiency is unknown. The side mirrors now have courtesy lights that project the Cadillac crest onto the ground. A feature that was popular in the 2000s but still cool and now with more advanced lighting tech. The Signature will borrow the Lyriq design for a little while longer until the next-gen model. Step-down models feature reflectors instead of light pipes in the tail lights to cut costs. The most interesting was the Adaptive LED house lights. These will turn on and off as the garage door is opened and closed to prevent the track of debris and bugs that spend the day in the garage at the top of the doorway from falling into your car's interior. The BMW iX headlights follow BMW tradition with the iconic corona rings. At the same time, they have scaled back as a company with only offering LED lighting as standard and an optional upgrade to integrated light and camera projection technology. Step-down iX models feature reflectors with a generic pattern. BMW is claiming the iX is their new technical flagship and it is yet to be seen how long this design will remain. The LED light carpet that would project from the edge of the front doors likely would not make it to a second generation of this model.

3. Interior and Technology

The Cadillac Lyriq's cabin design and materials are more traditional luxury than futuristic. The lack of visible switchgear creates a clutter-free ambiance. The centerpiece of the dash is a 33.0-inch curved LED screen, and a smaller display acts as the instrument panel. There's tasteful ambient lighting and genuine wood trim. All in all, it's a serene environment that feels a notch above in opulence compared with the BMW's interior. BMW iX takes a different approach with a more minimalist design and more extensive use of eco-friendly materials such as natural leather, reclaimed wood with open-pore finish, and microfiber cloth made from recycled materials. The iX has a hexagonal-shaped steering wheel for a modern touch, and an optional panoramic glass roof is sure to create a more airy feel in the cabin. The center console design eschews traditional HVAC controls for the iDrive controller and a rotary shifter, and a standard panoramic glass roof adds natural light. However, the Lyriq's glass display more successfully implements a similar idea with the latest software and tech, and the absence of the traditional shift lever frees up space for the driver. Ultimately, it adds up to a more modern, but clearly less luxurious feel inside compared with the Cadillac.

3.1. Luxurious Cabin and Comfort

The iX comes with an extensive list of comfort and convenience features that range from leather upholstery to heated armrests and ambient lighting. The Lyriq's features aren't as detailed as the iX's, but it does offer a similar level of comfort through its available heated and ventilated seats, a heated steering wheel, and Cadillac's customizable LED interior lighting. Both models come with power-adjustable steering wheels and driver's seats with memory settings, but only the iX comes with electrically adjustable and heated rear seats. The Lyriq's lack of electric rear seats is counteracted by its rear comfort advantage with a flat floor thanks to the absence of the iX's transmission tunnel and optional rear-wheel steering, which improves high-speed stability and low-speed maneuverability. Step-in height is also slightly lower with the Lyriq to assist easier getting in and out. In terms of cabin audio, the Lyriq's AKG Studio system looks to be a significant rival to the high-end Bowers & Wilkins sound system offered in the iX, despite the Bowers & Wilkins system often being considered the finest in-car audio setup in the industry. Later on in 2022, the Lyriq will also be available with the latest version of Cadillac's Super Cruise semi-autonomous driver assistance system, featuring automatic lane changing, but it is only available on US designated roads. This option can be a significant advantage for those who favor a less fatiguing driving experience on longer journeys. In the end, the iX at first glance appears to have a more detailed focus on cabin comfort. However, the Lyriq offers an alternative level of luxury with better audio options, rear-wheel steering, and Cadillac's semi-autonomous driving technology.

3.2. Advanced Infotainment and Connectivity

It is quite evident that the Cadillac LYRIQ outperforms the BMW iX with extra media tech to boast about, including a 33-inch infotainment screen with an OLED front and center for the driver. The BMW doesn't offer anything close to as advanced as that, with a 12.3-inch digital gauge cluster and a 14.9-inch central touchscreen. In addition to that, the LYRIQ has a 19-speaker AKG audio system with headrest speakers compared to BMW's standard 12-speaker Harman/Kardon surround sound. Both vehicles do come with wireless Apple CarPlay and Android Auto capabilities. However, the LYRIQ does have a slight edge by offering a full glass roof along with an adjustable multi-color ambient lighting control, which is absent on the iX. The iX does feature the latest BMW Operating System 8 with cloud-based navigation as standard, offering Remote Software Upgrades to keep the vehicle with the latest tech at all times, similar to how new updates are installed on a smartphone. In addition to that, it comes standard with a 5G capable eSIM providing access to BMW's Intelligent Personal Assistant, providing voice control and interaction with the vehicle. As expected, there are several advanced driver assistance features utilizing the latest technology from BMW, including a Parking Assistant with Reversing Assistant and Drive Recorder, which uses the 360-degree cameras to record video for up to 40 seconds before and after the vehicle is parked. The iX also has the option for the Bowers & Wilkins Diamond Surround Sound System, though it isn't confirmed that it will be available in the US market. Both vehicles do have a heads up display in order to keep the driver's eyes on the road while still having important information in view. Overall, the iX media tech is quite enticing and the standard navigation along with the BMW personal assistant is not offered by the LYRIQ.

3.3. Cutting-Edge Driver-Assistance Systems

In recent years, extensive development of automated and partially-automated systems has been evident. It was about one hundred years ago that the first car was found to offer some degree of automated driving. Fast forward to the early 2010s, and radar-based cruise control, lane departure warning, and advanced GPS and sensors have packed cars with a variety of traffic jam assistance systems, which keep the car in its lane on the highway. These are considered by many to be the first steps towards fully automated driving. The systems found in today's cars are no longer just an addition that makes life easier or helps to keep the car safer, they are effectively the first steps towards fully automated driving. We now have cars that are able to change lanes independently and overtake a slower vehicle ahead. The 5th generation Cadillac Escalade has a system that allows the driver to indicate the distance they would like to stay from the car in front, and the car will automatically adjust its speed to maintain that distance. The 2023 Lyriq would have a system capable of providing drivers super cruise, hands-free driving assistance available on more than 200,000 miles of enabled roads and this is Cadillac's first step towards enabling customers hands-free driving system in addition to creating the safest and most reliable cars with its future generation ultium powered car platform. This could be seen as a response to Tesla's autopilot system, of which a more advanced version is said to be ready by the time iX is released.

3.4. Sustainable Materials and Eco-Friendly Features

Cadillac, one of the most luxurious car manufacturers in the world, has created the Lyriq to show that the company is on a mission both to create a sustainable future and to still give their customers the luxury and comfort that they have become accustomed to from Cadillac. With the aim of getting to net zero emissions by 2050, the Lyriq is just one step on Cadillac's journey to a cleaner and more sustainable future. BMW has adopted a similar goal, with the aim to lower their emissions by at least 40% by 2025. The interior of the Lyriq is said to be "unlike any Cadillac before, or any vehicle yet", with the aim to create a simple and purposeful atmosphere. Cadillac's designers have used jewelry as an inspiration, with the use of clean lines and a "less is more" approach. Throughout the interior, there is a light and airy feeling, with the use of lighter colors and even LED lighting, powered by the vehicle's 100 kWh battery. BMW's iX moves forward with the idea of sustainability by using natural resources in a modern way. The interior will be entirely leather-free, using microfiber and a new material "Sensatec" which we are told has been created with sustainability in mind. Wood has always been a part of the BMW interior; however, for this vehicle, they are using a material called "open pore wood", which is unfinished to create a much more natural appearance and has used olive leaf extract in the tanning process to create an even more eco-friendly material. A new aluminum alloy, created with a reduced carbon footprint, will be used to create accents around the interior. This is in addition to the all-new electric drive system, which uses rare earth materials and has been created in a much cleaner process than before to lessen the impact on the environment. Both vehicles will be using materials and techniques that outline where car manufacturers need to be heading with the use of materials in the future.

4. Performance and Range

Now we compare the performance of the two vehicles. In terms of pure acceleration, the Lyriq wins with an estimated 0-60 time of 5.2 seconds compared to the BMW's 6.0 second estimate. Both vehicles have their electric motors powering either the rear or all four wheels which helps maximize interior space and handling. While there are no groundbreaking performance figures for either vehicle, the instant torque from the electric motors will give both a higher perceived level of performance compared to a similar gas vehicle. Regarding range and charging capabilities, the BMW has a claimed range of "over 300 miles" compared to the Lyriq's recently estimated 298 miles. The iX boasts faster charging capabilities with a possible 120 mile charge in 35 minutes using a DC fast charger. It's worth noting that battery technology is constantly improving, an exact miles-per-minute charging figure has yet to be released for the Lyriq but Cadillac has been said to be pushing up to 150 kW charging capabilities in the future. Both vehicles will require a fundamental lifestyle change in terms of regular at-home charging to maintain convenience and full range. (UMAM, 2023)

4.1. Electric Powertrain and Acceleration

The iX is fitted with a single electric motor driving the rear wheels, for which BMW claims a power output in excess of 500bhp and a 0-62mph time of less than 5.0sec. All versions of the iX have four-wheel drive and additional motors, and it is understood that there will be a fleet version with lower-powered motors that may have the same name. BMW's latest i4 uses two different power outputs, with the low-power version using just a single motor on the rear axle. Further down the line, it is possible that a similar tactic may be employed with the iX using cheaper, less powerful versions. The Lyriq will leverage GM's Ultium propulsion system, which will likely incorporate a variety of all-wheel drive electric powertrains and energy storage systems. The Lyriq will initially be offered with a rear-wheel-drive configuration. GM's new architecture and Ultium EV components are designed for an all-new global family of EVs, balancing performance, efficiency, and range, ultimately providing drivers with an engaging driving experience on the road. Battery electric full-size SUVs do not exist as a segment currently and are also a first for Cadillac and BMW. As a result, both manufacturers are looking to pave the way with these entries that are smaller in size than a traditional full-size SUV but are placing an emphasis on interior spaciousness normally expected from a full-size vehicle. The BMW uses a carbon fiber chassis structure, while the Lyriq will leverage GM's new modular electric vehicle architecture. Although the specifics of the Lyriq's construction have not yet been fully revealed, it is believed the vehicle will utilize a steel and aluminum structure. Both manufacturers have expressed an ultimate goal to provide seating for six or seven passengers and are aiming for this with these initial two entries, providing an initial indication that there will be electric successors to today's six and seven-seat mid-size SUVs from GM and BMW. Step-in height and cargo space are also areas that both manufacturers have identified will be positively influenced through the packaging of EV components in these new vehicles.

4.2. Battery Range and Charging Capabilities

Both BMW and Cadillac have addressed battery capabilities and charging convenience for their luxury EVs and have made some pretty impressive momentum. Cadillac has entered a long-term alliance with Qmerit and will be offering home installation for charging equipment, which will allow Lyriq owners to charge from the convenience of their own homes. Cadillac has not yet put out information about range capabilities and charging times; however, they have confirmed that Lyriq will be using Ultium batteries, which have been noted to be fast charging and capable of long range. It would be a conservative guess to expect at least 300 miles of range in the top trim level. Meanwhile, BMW's iX3, expected to go on sale sooner than the Lyriq, is rumored to have more than 70 kWh of usable energy in the battery and have the capability of 150 kW DC charging, which can give more than 75 miles of range in just 10 minutes. Many would think that the iX3 battery options would be better than the Lyriq; however, the iX3 is in the lower end of BMW's EV lineup, and the i4 and iNEXT are notably superior. If BMW would upgrade the battery options on these future models, that would probably exceed what Cadillac is doing with the Lyriq. All in all, the battery and charging capabilities seem to look very close in comparison of these two vehicles. Step in the right direction for luxury EVs.

In electric vehicles, range and charging capabilities are two very crucial topics, and these will matter more as more luxury vehicles come to the market. You will see people switching from gas and performance-focused luxury vehicles to electric ones, and the main concern from them is likely to be how much they can use the vehicle in their daily lives, then charge it overnight to have it ready for them in the morning. Any existing or potential EV owner is familiar with how Tesla has set the standard with their Supercharger network, which has had quite a head start on the competition for years and is still very sparse in some areas. With these two vehicles being at a luxury price point, potential owners will be looking for not only fast charging capabilities but also a widespread infrastructure and/or home charging convenience.

4.3. Handling and Driving Dynamics

In contrast to the acceleration test, driving dynamics and handling are much harder to evaluate. For the purposes of this test, driving dynamics and handling only take into account the vehicle's ability to be placed where the driver wants it to go at their intended speed - essentially how the vehicle responds to the driver's input. Factors evaluated include understeer, understeer recovery, vehicle balance, throttle steer, steering response and precision, body control, and ride quality. All of this was evaluated through a 30 mph slalom test on a 70' spaced course, and a double lane change maneuver. In the case of these two SUVs, they are not really designed to be pushed to their limits on such tests, but it is still important to gauge how they respond in situations with quick maneuvers such as avoiding a road hazard while traveling at speed. By far the best factor for the iX's handling is balance, due to its near perfect 50/50 weight distribution and consistent amount of safety net intervention from the stability control. Overall, the handling spectrum slightly favors understeer due to the nature of the SUV, but understeer recovery is moderate and the vehicle will rotate with the throttle in low to medium speed cornering. Ultimately, the X5 is more nimble and fun to drive, but there is not a massive gap between the two, making this the best handling an all-wheel drive BMW SUV has achieved compared to its rival. This is not to say the Lyriq handles poorly, but it is noticeably heavier and the less balanced weight distribution is apparent. The stability control is quite intrusive compared to the iX and can only be disabled in the one-wheel drive mode. This is unfortunately an area where the weight of the battery really hinders the performance, but it's important to remember this is not the most crucial factor for a luxury SUV such as the Lyriq and there are some advantages to the increased inertial mass in ride comfort and smoothness over bumps. Step steering input in the slalom and lane change tests revealed it was quite difficult to upset the rear end of the vehicle, and excessive throttle steer was avoided for fear of the stability control cutting in and making a situation where it could be difficult to regain control. The AWD system is quite advanced and despite imitating an open differential with its two single-speed transmissions and brake-actuated torque vectoring at the rear, the Lyriq's all-wheel drive exceeds the capability of most mechanically linked systems. A lack of rear end movement can be a disadvantage in vehicle rotation, but the AWD system is otherwise transparent to the driver and effective.


Kim, P. Y., 2020. Where We're Going, We Don't Need Drivers: Autonomous Vehicles and AI-Chaperone Liability. Cath. UL Rev.. law.edu

Thomas, N., 2020. The New German Nature Lyric. Humanities. mdpi.com

UMAM, M. S., 2023. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING SONGS AS MEDIA TO IMPROVE SPEAKING SKILL A Case of the 10th Graders of SMK Tunas Karya Berlian Pati in the Academic …. unissula.ac.id

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