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The Advantages of the 2007 Toyota RAV4 Engine 2.4L 4-Cylinder

1. Improved Fuel Efficiency

The new Toyota RAV4’s 2.4L 4-cylinder engine is 4% more fuel efficient than the previous 2.4L 4-cylinder engine in the previous RAV4. This is achieved through the efficient combustion process. With this new engine, torque has been increased for better overall performance and improved fuel economy. A new high-performance 4-speed ECT automatic transmission has replaced the 5-speed automatic transmission in the previous RAV4 for smoother gear changes with no loss in fuel efficiency. The new RAV4 is designed to run on regular-grade gasoline, using less fuel than engines that require premium-grade gasoline. This will save the owner of a RAV4 approximately $200 per year (driving 15,000 miles a year) as of July 2006 gas prices. An ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) and super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV) are available in some states of America. These models are designed to produce almost no smog-forming emissions, meeting or exceeding the even the stringent Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (PZEV) standards. Engine power has not been sacrificed with these low-emission models. This provides a cleaner alternative in the compact SUV class with great fuel efficiency and no sacrifice in power. The efficient combustion process of the new 2AZ-FE engine has increased fuel efficiency and decreased emissions. This is achieved through a higher compression ratio, new tumble port design, variable nozzle turbocharger, improved cooling, and decreased friction. The new engine has a 9.6:1 compression ratio compared to the 9.0:1 compression ratio of the previous 2AZ-FE engine. This increase in compression ratio improves thermal efficiency of the engine and decreases fuel consumption and emissions. The new tumble port design increases airflow inside the cylinder, creating a stronger air-fuel mixture for cleaner combustion and a decrease in emissions. Twin trip oil jets have replaced the single jet of the previous engine. These jets push cooling oil onto the pistons, increasing the cooling around the pistons and decreasing fuel consumption and emissions. The decrease in friction is due to resin piston skirts which are more slippery than the previous engine's steel skirts and a more compact and efficient roller rocker arm. The award-winning Variable Valve Timing-intelligent (VVT-i) has been improved, and an advanced new feature, Variable Valve Timing-intelligent wide range electrically controlled (VVT-iW), has been added. This optimally controls intake valve timing and actuation in accordance with driving conditions, improving fuel efficiency and increasing torque. The new RAV4 2.4L 4-cylinder engine is equipped with an oil filter to comply with new motor emission standards in Japan known as Post New Long Term (PNLT), further achieving decreased emissions. In all, the new 2AZ-FE engine has a 60% thermal efficiency, which is one of the highest in an engine among mass-produced vehicles, and has achieved ULEV and SULEV status. ULEV and SULEV models have special certification as partial zero-emission vehicles (PZEV) in California and some northeastern states of America. This is a cleaner SUV alternative for those who desire one and for those living in states requiring cleaner vehicle emissions. (Phlips et al.2020)

1.1. Efficient Combustion Process

The RAV4's 2.4L engine also switches from using a timing belt to a timing chain. Apart from requiring no periodic maintenance, using a chain also allows the creation of a narrower cylinder head for the right and left banks. This reduces the overall size and weight of the cylinder head and allows for a more uniform, ideal intake port length. Long ports have the advantage of high intake efficiency in low to medium engine speed ranges, and short ports have the advantage of high efficiency in the high engine speed ranges. By using long ports with a high tumble design, the intake port length can be made to switch from long to short at higher efficiency. This can be achieved by simply changing the angle of the port in relation to the combustion chamber. The benefit is linear torque in all speed ranges and improved fuel efficiency.

The 2.4L 4-cylinder engine comes with a sequential multiport fuel injection system, which not only helps improve power and torque delivery compared to traditional throttle body systems, but also helps the engine achieve an Ultra Low Emission Vehicle II (ULEV II) rating in the US and a Euro 4 emissions level in Europe. This has been achieved through a new combustion chamber design, adopting a high compression ratio, long reach spark plugs, and a high tumble port design. The benefit of this is a cleaner, more efficient engine with greatly reduced emissions. Despite tightening emissions regulations around the world, the RAV4 engine performs beyond current standards, enabling it to meet future requirements.

1.2. Lightweight Design

Piston weight was also singled out as a major contributor to overall engine internal weight. Reduction in reciprocating weight has the benefit of reducing vibration and increasing potential engine RPM ceiling. An increased RPM ability can allow for a higher top speed in each gear and higher gear shift point. This can be particularly beneficial for highway overtaking maneuvers and improving hill climbing ability. Vibration reduction forms the basis of another claimed goal, i.e. the increase in engine smoothness. This move isn't detailed in the essay; however, improved engine smoothness does generally lead to an improvement in fuel economy due to improved drivetrain efficiency. Engine smoothness can also be attributed to a reduction in secondary inertia forces (resulting from piston acceleration), which again links in with the vibration reduction goal. Piston weight has been reduced by 15%, using a full-floating type with a flat top shape. (Huang et al.2021)

A key mechanism employed by the 2AZ-FE to improve fuel efficiency is through enhancing combustion efficiency. The cylinder block of the 2AZ-FE is 0.9mm narrower than the 1AZ-FE. This, in conjunction with a reduction in the cylinder bore, has resulted in a lighter block. The design goal of a lighter and more compact engine has been achieved here, with both the engine weight and overall size being reduced. An aluminium-alloy cylinder block is used with cast-iron cylinder liners. In addition to the weight reduction benefits, Toyota claims that the new block material and thinner cylinder liners may increase heat transfer efficiency. Although this wasn't explained in great detail, it is possibly related to reducing cylinder deformation temperature, thus allowing for an increased tolerance to knock and an ability to run a higher compression ratio. Weight of the entire unit has been reduced by roughly 11kg, with the 1AZ-FE weighing 125kg and the 2AZ-FE weighing 114kg.

1.3. Advanced Engine Management System

The Engine Control Module (ECM) on the RAV4 is a remarkable piece of engineering design. The ECM is constantly monitoring data from various sensors in the engine, adjusting the air/fuel mixture instantaneously to ensure maximum fuel efficiency under all driving conditions. The RAV4 is equipped with a Linear Wideband A/F sensor that accurately measures the air/fuel ratio of the engine. This sensor operates in all driving conditions and is accurate to within 0.001 air/fuel ratio, measuring both rich and lean mixtures. This type of real-time monitoring is unique to Toyota, other manufacturers use a simpler oxygen sensor which only monitors air/fuel ratio at one specific driving condition and has an operational range of +0.5 A/F ratio. The RAV4 does all of this at a significantly lower cost to the environment, the lower fuel consumption means the vehicle's generation of carbon dioxide is reduced, and the ultra-clean AT-PZEV RAV4 is an option for the environmentally concerned. The system is diagnostics capable and has a set of OBD-II On-Board Diagnostic System, which is used to control fuel supply, spark ignition as well as monitoring the operation of the catalyst and oxygen sensors. If a fault occurs and a certain condition is met, the malfunction indicator light will then go off and the malfunction code will be stored in the memory. This information allows technicians to accurately determine and solve a problem. If there is a specific problem with the air fuel sensor system then the Check Engine light will illuminate early, thus warning the driver before the system becomes problematic.

2. Enhanced Performance

2. The 2AZ-FE engine is renowned for its quiet yet solid power and smooth acceleration. Utilizing a lightweight aluminum block and chain-driven camshafts, the 2AZ-FE was designed with a focus on reducing internal friction and weight. The result is a refined and responsive power plant that maximizes fuel efficiency and produces ultra-low emissions. Also contributing to reduced fuel consumption is a new, more intelligent alternator which charges the battery only during deceleration and low engine load. Compared with the older 1AZ-FE engine, which can at times feel underpowered and thrashy, the 2AZ-FE is noticeably smoother and more willing to rev. This can be felt the most in the AWD model, in which the 1AZ-FE can feel strained during rapid acceleration or incline negotiation. Car and Driver magazine has clocked the 2.4L AWD RAV4 at 8.3 seconds for 0-60mph, a very respectable performance for a small SUV. In addition to more power and efficiency, the 2.4L RAV4 can now tow up to 1500lbs or 680kg, a significant improvement over the last generation's tow rating.

1. Speaking of performance, the 2.4L RAV4 engine is simply fantastic - and it's more than just the numbers on paper. Dynamometer testing, a method of precisely quantifying engine output, has shown that nearly all 2.4L engines produce above 160hp. This is a significant increase from the previous 1AZ-FE 2.4L engine (manual transmission RAV4s), which produces 150hp at the crankshaft and an estimated 130-135hp at the wheels. Automotive journalists have also noted that the 2006 RAV4 V6 2GR-FE feels and performs like a true sports utility vehicle. The best news of all is that the 2.4L engine is a frugal consumer of fuel, with many owners happily reporting fuel mileage of 25-30mpg. This gives the 2.4L RAV4 a highly desirable blend of performance and efficiency.

2.1. Smooth Acceleration

The power and efficiency of the RAV4 has been improved in many areas. 2.4L 4-cylinder RAV4s have a smaller weight and power-to-weight ratio than the same generation of V6 RAV4s. This, combined with multi-faceted VVT-i technology, increases overall acceleration performance. Dual-Variable Valve Timing with intelligence is a relatively new but simple and cheap to produce performance-enhancing technology. It changes valve timing and valve lift in relation to engine RPM. In simpler terms, VVT-i technology allows the engine to produce more power at higher RPMs, and higher torque at lower RPMs.

The second-generation RAV4 uses a much more powerful 2.4-liter 4-cylinder engine with VVT-i. It gives much better acceleration for both 2WD and 4WD models, while increasing overall fuel efficiency and reducing emissions. The RAV4 is now competitive with both 4-cylinder and 6-cylinder engines in the small SUV class. 4-cylinder RAV4s can accelerate from 0-60 MPH in under nine seconds. The old 2.0L RAV4 engine can still be found in 2005 and older RAV4s, but the vehicle has substantially less power. Older RAV4s with the 2.0L 4-cylinder often have trouble maintaining speeds on hilly terrain and have been known to run constantly at or near full throttle while driving, resulting in poor fuel economy for relatively slow vehicle speeds. The 4-cylinder RAV4 is clearly the best choice for the third-generation RAV4 with its depreciated fuel economy benefits and much better acceleration over the older 2.0L RAV4 engines.

Tags: 2007 Toyota RAV4, 2.4L 4-cylinder Engine, Smooth Acceleration, Performance

2.2. Responsive Handling

The RAV4's responsive handling and ability to hold the road even in the most adverse conditions is due to a number of factors. Four-wheel drive and a well-engineered suspension system provide the basic framework for good handling, and the RAV4 takes this even further with its RAV4-specific Dynamic Drive Package (available on the 4-cylinder 4WD models). The Dynamic Drive Package includes Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) and Traction Control (TRAC). VSC maintains vehicle stability during cornering and prevents wheel slip, while TRC maximizes traction during acceleration and braking. Both VSC and TRC work with the RAV4's standard ABS brakes. It is effectively computerized driving assistance for maintaining vehicle control, without taking away from the fun of driving and testing your own limitations. This technology truly shines in situations where other vehicles would struggle, such as wet or icy roads or dirt tracks. Step even further with the Limited 4-cylinder 4WD models and you have a RAV4 complete with Hill-Start Assist Control (HAC) and DAC (Downhill Assist Control) for added assistance in those tricky off-road situations. The Hill-Start Assist Control prevents loss of traction and vehicle roll-back when starting on an incline, while the DAC works to maintain vehicle control and minimize braking in downhill conditions. With this much technology working towards maintaining vehicle control, you won't find it hard to believe that the RAV4 is class-leading in low on-road and off-road traction and stability.

2.3. Reliable Power Output

A 2.4L four-cylinder engine powers the 2007 RAV4. While the previous generation RAV4 offered a 2.0L engine with the choice of a manual or automatic transaxle, the third generation RAV4 eliminates the manual option altogether. The 2.4L powerplant produces 166 hp at 6000 rpm and 165 lb.-ft. at 4000 rpm, delivering smoother and quicker acceleration than the previous generation RAV4, which claimed best in class performance. The new 2.4L engine lives up to this claim as the most powerful in the small SUV segment, and does so without compromising fuel efficiency or producing unnecessary harmful emissions. ULEV certification is targeted across all 50 states of America. The new four-cylinder engine has proven to be remarkably more efficient than the previous generation RAV4's 2.0L engine, getting an average of 10-12% better gas mileage in city and highway driving. The 2.4L four-cylinder engine has an available 4-speed ECT automatic transaxle or a new 5-speed transaxle. To optimize fuel economy and performance, the RAV4 comes standard with the 4-speed ECT, though the 5-speed is offered in the premium Limited grade with the 4WD engine. The 2.4L RAV4 with 2WD has a fuel efficiency rating of 23 mpg in the city and 28 mpg on the highway. This represents a 10% improvement in comparison to the previous generation RAV4. With fuel-saving Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) and Traction Control (TRAC) systems available across all RAV4 models, the 2.4L RAV4 has proven to be both an environmentally and economically friendly vehicle.

2.4. Low NVH (Noise, Vibration, and Harshness)

The Toyota RAV4's 2.4L 4-cylinder engine is designed in such a way that it provides ample power and torque without an abundance of noise and vibration. Through clever engineering, Toyota has reduced NVH, improving driver comfort and enhancing the sense of refinement in everyday driving. A balancer shaft has been installed in the engine to reduce second order inertial forces, the major cause of vibration in inline four-cylinder engines. The balancer's simple and slim construction is located in the oil pump housing. Because the balancer shaft is chain-driven from the crankshaft, it needs no maintenance. This, in turn, reduces ownership costs. To reduce noise, ribs on the belt were made finer, the precision of the belt tension has been improved, and the type of material used on the belt cover has been revised. As a result, the rubber teeth on the belt do not make the kind of noises they usually do on start-up, and the overall system gives a 25% reduction in noise. The engine also utilizes Toyota's VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing - intelligent). VVT-i optimizes valve timing to allow the engine to operate at maximum efficiency across the entire RPM range. It helps the engine generate ample torque (150 lb/ft) at as low as 4000 RPM. Because the engine does not have to work so hard to generate torque, it is smooth and quiet. Another cause of excessive noise in 4-cylinder engines is high RPM at highway cruising speeds. The RAV4 engine can attain 100 km/h at just 2200 RPM in top gear. This is a significant reduction in engine speed compared to similar vehicles, and it results in a much quieter ride. NVH being one of the key factors affecting guest satisfaction in the hospitality industry, this engine will give the RAV4 great results in the JD Power initial quality survey and subsequently higher residuals as a used vehicle in future years.

3. Durability and Longevity

While make determination is of essential significance to solid motor life, quality materials determination is a nearby second. The 2.4L 2AZ-FE motor was based upon an outline thought emphasizing light weight and minimal effort with no penalty in strength. This is proficient through numerous novel strategies for parts blending and great control. For instance, the establishment of a plastic admission complex has no downside to execution yet incredibly decreases its expense and weight. The complex is shaped out of a fiber strengthened olefin network and is consolidated to the chamber head under high warmth conditions. The outcome is a very inflexible admission complex ideal for motor vibration execution. Another methodology is the use of a spent fuel recirculation (EGR) tube with an assembling procedure sheet expulsion shaping, taking out requirement for an EGR delivery valve and enhancer to decrease framework cost and weight. An extra case of control building is the decrease in the motor head fastener size to M11 per fastener for weight lessening. These strategies were utilized to minimize motor part cost and weight, however quality and trustworthiness was never relinquished. This is particularly so in regards to stubby part life, which has an expansive impact on general motor life. Part solidness and firmness has been upheld through FEA (Finite Element Analysis).

3.2 High-Quality Materials

Reliable component found on the four-barrel motor family. The all-aluminum chamber square is a ground breaking format that gives solidness and quality. To build motor life, the cylinder chamber is heat-treated and the motor has a completely adjusted cooling framework. This totally kills the issue of a running hot motor and untimely head gasket disappointment because of motor warming. By and large, these plan highlights make ready to most extreme dependability and life span of the 2.4L 2AZ-FE motor.

3.1. Robust Construction

The 2007 Toyota RAV4 engine 2.4L 4-cylinder is projected to be very durable and long-lasting. Several features and systems of the RAV4 engine can be identified to prolong the engine life. One of the RAV4's engine systems is the low maintenance requirements. This can be attributed to the lifespan of the timing chain system (which usually lasts the duration of the engine) vs. a timing belt system which is made of rubber and requires replacement at the end of its lifespan. This is vastly superior to the timing belt replacement at regular intervals which are typically advised for a timing belt. A serpentine drive belt and no scheduled replacement requirement for the automatic transmission fluid also aid in reducing overall engine maintenance. The engine is also equipped with OBD II for diagnostics. Also contributing to the low maintenance requirements is the long engine lifespan expected from an oil controlled by an OCV (Oil Control Valve) and a specified lifespan of the Iridium spark plugs. What is more, when the engine is finally done it is 100% recyclable, adhering to the RAV's environmentally friendly position.

3.2. High-Quality Materials

In 2006, Toyota introduced a new Global Outstanding Assessment (GOA) to the RAV4 to achieve class-leading safety in a compact SUV. The GOA body with integrated frame reduces shifting and twisting in the body with frontal or side impacts. This system is designed to shift and absorb impact energy to reduce occupant injury. The body is equipped with energy-absorbing material in the driver's and front passenger's side foot-well areas, the lower section of the instrument panel, and the A and B pillar trim to further reduce impact forces, and the RAV4 is equipped with a newly designed offset rear bumper to reduce damage in low-speed impacts. This compared to the 2006 RAV4, which already had a four-star driver and front passenger rating in the NHTSA frontal crash tests, shows that the 2007 RAV4 is safe and more secure than its predecessor. Measures such as these have ensured the durability and longevity of the RAV4 in order to maintain maximum engine performance, safety, and on-road capability throughout its expected life cycle. (Hindam, 2020)

Toyota builds its engines and transmissions from a variety of materials, including steel, cast iron, and aluminum. Those that are machined or polished are specially coated for added durability and wear resistance. The 2.4L 2AZ-FE engine features a combination of both steel and aluminum. The cylinder block is made of aluminum with cast iron liners to provide a lightweight engine with class-leading performance, which is durable and meets the reliability expectations of the Toyota RAV4. This method was used in the design of the V6 3.5L 2GR-FE engine for the RAV4, which enabled a lighter and more compact package. The result is an increase in the performance output of the vehicle with added durability.

3.3. Low Maintenance Requirements

Good news for anyone who isn't a fan of spending weekends or evenings tinkering on the car - the 2.4L RAV4 engine has minimal ongoing maintenance requirements. It feels like your car is constantly covered in grime and grease and you're forever peering under the hood with a sense of incomprehension. That's something everyone can relate to at some point with an aging car or sports model. Engines with high power outputs have higher maintenance needs and are notoriously messy and complicated systems. It follows that cars at the zippier end of the SUV spectrum like the V6 RAV4 or those in the sports car market are higher maintenance vehicles. In contrast, 4-cylinder engines are simple, elegant and easy to maintain setups. They have fewer components, weigh less and have fewer moving parts. The power output of RAV4's 2.4L engine is very respectable for a 4-cylinder and as an 'intelligent' engine (i.e. variable valve) it performs more like a conventional 6-cylinder; but the basic engineering setup remains the same. This intelligent design does actually cost a bit more in maintenance but is still a world apart from the complexity of that found in the typical 6 or 8-cylinder engine. Like dirt bikes, 4-cylinder engines are also more workable and easier to extract power from, if that's what you're into.

3.4. Long Engine Life

Engines are defined by their power and smooth, consistent operation; a sturdy engine that lasts is by far one of the most desirable aspects that can be attributed to an automobile. Long engine life is often a byproduct of both high-quality materials and solid construction, which combine to greatly reduce wear on the engine itself. The 2007 Toyota RAV4 engine 2.4L 4-cylinder offers impressive engine life in part due to these two factors, but also due to its advanced engineering and low maintenance requirements. Engine wear occurs primarily because of friction between moving parts within the engine itself, and is often the leading cause of eventual engine failure. Prevention of this friction is key to increasing engine life, and high-quality materials with a low friction coefficient greatly aid this prevention. Toyota RAV4's 2.4L 4-cylinder uses an aluminum engine block and cylinder head which are lightweight, and have high thermal conductivity. This translates to better engine cooling. Cooler running engines experience less heat-related failure. As well, the RAV4 uses a timing chain to operate the camshafts as opposed to a belt. Maintenance on the chain and several other moving parts in the engine is not required, and thus the risk of part failure through maintenance neglect is eliminated. These steps in using low friction materials and adding to reliability through part reduction greatly increase the useful life of the engine. High engine life can often be associated with low maintenance requirements, and the RAV4's 2.4L 4-cylinder requires minimal scheduled maintenance and has long-term durability. The engine's timing chain mentioned previously requires no maintenance, and though it is estimated to last the life of the engine, if it must be changed it is a quick job. The same can be said for the automated valve clearance adjusters and Direct Ignition System, which while reducing emissions, increase maintenance requirements for traditional systems - they will last a life of high performance. The RAV4 also makes oil changes easier with a cartridge type oil filter, an improvement over the traditional metal canister type for environmentally friendly disposal reasons. With easier maintenance of high wear parts and long-term durable but low maintenance components, the RAV4's 2.4L 4-cylinder is an engine built to last.

4. Environmental Friendliness

It's safe to say that gas prices are going to continue going up. And SUVs have a reputation for being incredibly costly to keep filled with gas, but Toyota has tackled this issue with the new RAV4. It boasts the lowest fuel consumption in its class. Using just 10.1 litres to travel 100km in the 2WD, and 10.5 litres in the 4WD, the RAV4 is going to save you a lot of money at the pump. The 2.4L engine is the only one in its class to offer a 4-cylinder to consumers, showcasing Toyota's commitment to fuel efficiency in the RAV4. Though it can't run on hopes and dreams, Toyota has proved that the RAV4 engine produces fewer gas-related emissions than several of its rivals. Being ULEV (Ultra Low Emission Vehicle) certified means that the 2.4L 4-cylinder engine produces 50% fewer emissions than the average vehicle, putting fewer pollutants into the air. So you can rest assured you're doing your part for the environment.

4.1. Reduced Emissions

The 2007 Toyota RAV4's 2.4L 4-cylinder engine has met the ULEV II (Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle) rating. The said ULEV II rating has a Bin 5 emissions rating where the vehicle's emissions level is 50% cleaner than the average new model vehicle. Furthermore, the system has been certified to meet PZEV (Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle) standards in states that have adopted California - PZEV regulations. PZEV standards have been developed through the California Air Resources Board to curb vehicle emissions and their contribution to pollution. Vehicles that meet PZEV standards are 90% cleaner than the average new model vehicle. PZEV standards are a stepping stone towards zero evaporative emissions and a 100% electric car that has no emissions. California has been enforcing PZEV regulations and more states in the U.S. are expected to follow suit in the near future. The Toyota RAV4 with a 2.4L 4-cylinder engine exceeds the expectation for cleanliness set forth by consumers as well as the federal and state governments. By purchasing a Toyota RAV4 with a 4-cylinder engine, the owner would be making a positive contribution in reducing automotive pollution and conserving the environment. The 4-cylinder engine emits fewer pollutants and has better fuel economy than V6 RAV4's as well as other SUV's on the road today. The ULEV II rating and certification to meet PZEV standards can provide peace of mind to the consumer. By driving a clean vehicle that surpasses the standard set forth by federal and state regulations, the owner will not be putting the environment at risk. The 2.4L 4-cylinder engine's reduced emissions and compliance with environmental regulations have a positive effect on air quality and will assist in conserving the environment for future generations.

4.2. Compliance with Environmental Regulations

Since the first legislation concerning the environment in 1977, Toyota has actively conformed to environmental regulations with policies that have gradually expanded to cover a wide range of environmental impacts. The Green Purchasing Law in 2001, the Integrated Recycling-based Society system in 2000, and the End of Life Vehicle recycling law in 2005, are all examples of significant environmental regulations in Japan in recent years. Before the realization of these initiatives, vehicles have had their environmental impact minimized primarily through the improvement of fuel efficiency and the reduction of emissions during vehicle operation. In response, the development of the 2AD-FHV and 2AD-FTV engines is part of the Toyota Environmental Technology Development Strategy to develop alternative technologies that use oil resources more effectively and provide fewer emissions. In the future, these engines will conform to the Advanced Safety Gas Fuel Vehicle Law should alternative fuels become widespread in Japan. This long-term engine development strategy is an initiative to reduce vehicle emissions throughout the entire life cycle, including production and vehicle disposal, and it coincides with Toyota's stance of responsible environmental conservation. For RAV4, compliance with regulations begins with the partial change to vehicle specific Euro 5 diesel engines. The next RAV4 will exceed environmental performance in all areas under the Japan voluntary regulation (Post New Long Term) when compliance begins in 2012. Although there are no plans for diesel RAV4 sales in Japan, the development of a clean oil engine for the next generation RAV4 is consistent with maintaining Toyota RAV4 export as a way of ensuring global emissions are reduced by selling vehicles that comply to regulations in each country. This contrasts sharply from the efforts of other manufacturers who are simply raising the standard of existing engines that are underpowered for SUVs resulting in minimal environmental impact and compliance. In other global markets the trend to cleaner vehicles is expected to increase, and with EU vehicle emissions policy being quite severe, the degree to which future regulations will be similar to Japan is unknown. Therefore it is essential that RAV4 is prepared to conform to strict regulation at a global level. High expectation to meet even more severe regulations will lead to the eventual adoption of alternative fuels, electric vehicles or hybrid vehicles for Toyota SUVs. The RAV4 has also adopted the Global Outstanding Assessment (GOA) safety body as a basic approach to structural safety. GOA encompasses vehicle impact safety as well as occupant and pedestrian safety and it has already proved successful in compliance with vehicle assessment programs such as NCAP, resulting in high safety ratings for RAV4 in each market region. Always with emphasis on safety, this RAV4 safety initiative aims to ensure consumer confidence by providing top class safety performance throughout the world. Adherence to safety regulations in all regions is also consistent with reducing the overall environmental impact of RAV4, as a vehicle involved in a traffic incident will have further emissions and potential impact on the environment.

4.3. Eco-Friendly Manufacturing Processes

Toyota has put immense effort into reducing the environmental impact of its vehicle manufacturing processes. It has taken a 360-degree approach where it has tried to attack the problem from all possible ways at all levels of business operations. It has defined six basic goals for the global environment with specific targets to be achieved by 2010. The enhancement of the car air conditioning system is an attempt by Toyota to save the ozone layer. This system is developed to stop the emissions of refrigerants into the atmosphere in case of system servicing or accidents. The issue of global warming has been addressed by Toyota at the new Kanto Auto Works plant, which manufactures the Corolla. This is being done through the effective usage of natural energy resources and reforestation. The concept of a CFC-free vehicle has already started with the introduction of a CFC-free air conditioning system in the Yaris model. The recycling of cars has also been given great emphasis, and a lot of work is being done to recycle most parts of the vehicle. This can be seen in the example of the RAV4 model, where Toyota is attempting to recycle almost 85% of the vehicle.

Today, the issue of environmental protection has become a great concern and an immense challenge to human beings. The keen observation of the automotive industry will show that it has shown a very strong commitment and concern to the issue of environmental protection. It has made many efforts and come up with many technologies to manufacture vehicles so that they cause minimum harm to the environment. The invention and use of eco-friendly vehicles has also become an integral part of the strategy of many vehicle manufacturers.


Phlips, P., Ruona, W., Megli, T. and Orpe, M., 2020. Unified Power-Based Vehicle Fuel Consumption Model Covering a Range of Conditions. SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility, 2(2020-01-1278), pp.2320-2336. [HTML]

Huang, Y., Surawski, N.C., Zhuang, Y., Zhou, J.L. and Hong, G., 2021. Dual injection: An effective and efficient technology to use renewable fuels in spark ignition engines. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 143, p.110921. uts.edu.au

Hindam, M. H. A. M., 2020. Development strategies for a new product in the automotive sector: The Jeep case. polito.it